Sunday, May 24, 2020

Personnel management vs human resource management - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2947 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? People in an organization carry out the entire task, from setting strategies and goals to allocating financial resources and from producing goods and services to marketing them. Therefore, the human beings are considered to be lsquo;human resource or lsquo;human capital in an organization (Bratton and Gold, 2001). And managing this resource is crucial and the idea and practice of managing have come through several changes. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Personnel management vs human resource management" essay for you Create order The ever rising intense competition in the global business and spreading responsibilities brought dramatic changes in the way approaches were made towards people management. The time business crossed the national boundaries and spread throughout different continents and different time zones it faced new challenges and difficulties in meeting the demands from the people of different cultures. Idea sharing and participation in decision making, therefore, became important as these can give the organizations competitive edge in the changed environment. As a consequence the traits like aptitudes; commitment, ability to learn and tacit knowledge have become obligatory in order to have continuous development (Bratton and Gold, 2001). Thus, the demands of the specialists as well as the formation of new strategies to fit to the changed environment increased along with the growth of business boundary. Human Resource Management: lsquo;Human resource management is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeksto obtain competitive advantage through the strategic deployment ofa highly committed and skilled workforce, using an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. (Storey, 1995). Thus, HRM is mainly a set of policies that are created aiming to obtain the organizational goal through the successful implementation of corporate strategy considering the human resource of the company as the driving force that can make the difference or in other words give the company its most needed competitive advantage. Company needs to balance the aspirations of its people as well as its strategic demands towards making HRM policies. There have been many models to explain the concept Human Resource Management. One of the important models is Harvard model. The Harvard Framework preferred to see the whole process of HRM from the General Managers point of view (Armstrong, 2003). How they want to see the consequences of every step recognizing the importance of trade-offs between owners, employees and various interest groups (Armstrong, 2003). Here, the HR gets some outcomes as the direct affect of its policy choices and those outcomes brings the consequences that meet the stakeholders interests. It suggests that the general managers should develop a viewpoint, as they provide the strategic vision, of how they wish to see the employee involvement in achieving the goals. Another important model is Warwick model. As Harvard model is developed in the American context it reflects the American style and way of managing HR but Warwick model reflects the European style (Loosemore et al., 2003). Unlike Harvard model it focuses on external and internal both context and explores how both the internal and external environment influence the HR decisions (Bratton and Gold, 1999). From Personnel to HRM: The concept of HRM started getting shape in the early stage of industrial revolution (Bratton and Gold, 2001). Emerging concern of employee rights and the growth of trade union, changing reactions of the workforce and employers towards the public policy, implementation of strict health and safety regulations, increased demands of specialised personnel in the work force along with the technological innovations, scientific and sophisticated approach to managing employees and the ever ending competition in the market played vital role in the emergence of the concept Human Resource Management (Bratton and Gold, 2001). Though the concept is old but the title HRM was given to it only couple of decades back. Before that it was known as Personnel Management. Some scholars say that there is no actual difference between Personnel Management and HRM except the two different names (Storey, 2007; Armstrong, 2003; Torrington et al., 2008). Along with the emergence of the new economic order in 80s and 90s of last century the approach towards people management changed and the preference of treating personnel moved to individual rather then collective in order to ensure that the highly skilled and loyal employees will give the organization a competitive advantage (Bratton and Gold, 2001). Thus, changing the title is also an approach to give the people management a new image to fit to the changing environment. Torrington and Hall (1991, cited in Armstrong, 2003) sees the distinction as, Personnel Management is lsquo;workforce centred and therefore directs itself to employees, on the other hand HRM is lsquo;resource centred concerns itself with the overall human resource needs of the organization. Storey (2007) shows the detailed differences between Personal Management and HRM in his twenty seven points of differences where he categorized the elements into four-part basic outlines. These are; Beliefs and assumptions, Strategic Aspects, Line Management and Key levers (Storey, 2007). Miller (1998) integrated Storeys twenty seven points into six main points that focuses on the major points of distinction between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management. Dimension Personnel HRM Nature of relations Pluralist Unitarist Speed of decision Slow Fast Key managers Personnel General/line Pay Job evaluation Performance related Job categories Many Few Communication Restricted Increased Table: Personnel Management vs Human Resource Management (Miller, 1998) So, the distinction between personnel and HR is clear. The biggest change probably is focus. The focus has now shifted from overall performance to individuals. Employee involvement through personal development is now not only highly encouraged but also to ensure it the companies are undertaking different training and development programmes. An early example of this change was set by Ford when it announced its change initiatives that contain statement like lsquo;employee involvement is our way of life (Storey, 2007). The Characteristics of HRM: The attempt of HRM is to manage the people, the most valuable asset of a company, to achieve its goals and objectives. Thus, the typical characteristics of HRM include both the welfare of the company and the welfare of its employee. Armstrong (2003) pointed out some characteristics of HRM, these are; It integrates the HR and business strategies and emphasizes the need for all strategic fit. It is commitment oriented as it emphasizes on gaining the committed goals and mission of the organisation. It attaches diversified cultures and values together and brings harmony in the workplace. It identifies the potentials of the employee and appoints the task accordingly to ensure the maximum benefits. It manages and harnesses the potentials of the personnel and brings the best out of them. It ensures both the happiness of the personnel and happiness of the stakeholders. The Functions HRM: The basic HR functions according to Armstrong (2003) and Torrington et al (1991) are: Human Resource Planning The management determines the types and the number of human resources it needs to accomplish a task or reach the goal. In this case the management has to consider the financial support available to it. Recruitment and selection; Proper recruitment and selection procedure needs to be followed in order to meet the demand of required skills. In this case the necessary skills can be tested through written or oral test or a combination of both. Reward systems; Reward systems are structured and measured by the company to keep the employee motivated. It may include direct, indirect or psychological reward. Employment legislation; Terms and conditions, policies and opportunities for both parties should be open and written in order to avoid confusion. The HR department has to clearly mention the company policies in the employment contract. Management of diversity; As the business is now global the companies need to ensure an environment where employees from different cultural, religious and ethnic groups are treated equal. Again, Fords early realisation prompted them apply policies such as lsquo;our doors are open to men and women alike without discrimination and without regard to ethnic origin or personal beliefs (Storey, 2007). Training and development; To make the employees more efficient and prepare them for higher level of responsibilities the HRM department needs to have a continuous training and development process. Along with the routine process the companies also train their employees during a sudden demand such as an addition of new software or hardware. Grievance and discipline; To ensure time keeping, good employee relations, proper behaviour and professional attitudes the HR department formulate company procedures. Termination of employment relation; As part of disciplinary action, end of the contract, the part of an employment cut or the relocation of the employee the HRM takes all the necessary actions. Strategic HRM: Human resource management is no more limited to managing people, recruiting, selecting, training and all other conventional administrative duties. As the people are the core competitive advantage in todays business, they are evaluated as the brainpower of the company rather than manpower. The way of business competition has become knowledge based (storey et al, 2009). Thus, the human resource department plays a more strategic role today. Apart from all the administrative works Strategic HR participates on planning corporate strategy. It plans out the necessary skills and required effort needed for a particular task to be carried out in future. SHRM also indicates a planned HR policy that integrates the business goal and may encompasses a number of HR strategies to improve the individual, thus business, performance to make the reward system more effective (CIPD , 2010). Miller (1998) says if a company be able to establish an appropriate fit between strategy and HRM it can be considered as practising strategic HRM. The business strategy and the strategic human resource management run in parallel, both are informative and communicative. Information available to SHRM about how people are motivated deployed and the availability of skills and knowledge might determine the business strategy, on the other hand when business strategy requires the improvement of customer service this will probably shape the training plans and performance improvement plans (CIPD, 2010). Approaches to SHRM: Strategic HRM is mainly a resource based philosophy and this encompasses three possible approaches (Armstrong, 2003). These are explained bellow: Resource based SHRM: Resource based HRM strategy focuses on the performance of the employee and compare the productivity of its people with the competitors. In this approach learning is highly encouraged and the intellectual capital is developed and nurtured. High-performance management approach: By developing the skills of the employees and improving the self management capacity and team performance the HR department can actually enhance the overall productivity and ensure customer satisfaction. Here, the quality leadership, vision, benchmarking and decentralization are suggested in order to have greater success (Stevens, 1998; cited in Armstrong, 2003). High performance approach also require to have a rigorous recruitment and selection procedure, a proper learning and development process and merit pay and profit sharing to encourage high performance (Armstrong, 2003). High involvement management: This approach says employees are to be treated as partners, their interests should be respected and their equal involvement in decision making should be encouraged. A very good communication between the managers and the employees that gives clear understanding of organizational vision, values and the expectation of both parties can achieve the organization its expected productivity. Characteristics of SHRM: There are some characteristics of SHRM can be drawn from the writing of Salaman et al (2005) and Armstrong (2003). These are discussed below: -It connects the whole process to the business strategy and plays a proactive role rather than reactive. Instead of waiting for the instruction and complaints strategic HR managers take proactive steps and plans out the future outcome. -SHRM is output driven. It takes all strategic steps to improve the performance of the employees and achieve the overall competitive advantage. -It is more preventive than corrective and thus it value employees who are multi-skilled, cross-functional and team players. It expects people to do the things write the first attempt. -It provides the guidance to other sections of the organization on what to measure, how to measure and how to report the outcomes of the measurement CIPD (2010) Dave Ulrich (1997) suggested four strategic roles in order to be able to create real value to the business. These are: Strategic partner: Here, the HR manger help the company turn the strategy into result. He will evaluate the existing strategy and figure out whether there is any strategic change needed. Change agent: HRM helps the change happen and it happens faster. Also make sure human resource understand and cope up with the change. Employee champion: managing and evaluating talents or the intellectual capital and Administrative expert: Ensuring the all the human resource related jobs are done and they are done in a way that helps the business. Effect of Globalization: Globalization is shortening the trade barriers, making the market more open and thus more competitive. It is a very influencing source that fuelling the changes faster. Toyota, one of the largest car producers in the world, was the hundredth Japanese company when it decided to locate their first UK based manufacturing facility in Derby (Storey, 2007). But it took fifteen years, from 1972-87, for the first fifty Japanese companies to arrive in UK and the next fifty companies arrived in following two years time (Storey, 1992, p. 12). The challenges that globalization has brought to Human Resource Management and the they should be faced are: Restructuring: Business is expanding in one way or other. Either two or more firms of same industry are merging together or one is acquiring the other. As a direct result of this the company eliminate layers of managers, closes facilities and cut jobs. HR managers are facing challenges in managing people who worked in different company cultures and some whom withdraw their loyalty. Even sometimes when the companies from different countries of different time zones merge than language and cultures become the main concern (CIPD, 2011). -In this regard the HR professionals need work in co-operation with other organizational sections. Need to understand different organizational management policy and take the professional through smooth transition process. Management of diversity: As an effect of globalisation people from different cultures, ethnic groups and religion come in one place and work together and they require a mutual understanding that make the way to productivity smooth. -Here, the HR department needs to ensure a working environment that offers equal opportunity and respect to the people from all background (CIPD, 2010). They need to understand different cultural and religious values. Technological innovation: Continuous innovation of new technology put pressure on HR department of the company to ensure a continuous training and development programme. Also, the technologies are reducing HR tasks that create the chance of HR job cuts. -HR professionals need to make themselves equipped with latest technological knowledge. They need to diversify themselves and be useful in participating other organizational tasks. Outsourcing: Outsourcing concept has come up along with the globalization. Organizations are now outsourcing some of their task to other companies that may be located some other part of the world. Thus, some of the HR functions now to be done by the line managers (Kumar, 2011). -Along with other qualifications the line managers need to have the proper understanding of Human Resource Management. On the other hand the HR managers need to outline and monitor the HR task of the line managers. Economic and political change: Economic changes such as global recession, change in government policy as a result of the shift in political power force the companies to close facilities and decrease production cost. As a direct result of this organizations decrease the size of HR body and put pressure on the remaining to be more productive (Kumar, 2011). -Through the effective training and development process the HR managers need to ensure top level productivity of the human capital that will reduce production cost and make the organization more sustainable. Conclusion: Human Resource Management has come through different changes and challenges over the recent years. Though, the innovation of technologies is reducing some of the HR tasks but these affecting the HR roles very less. Also, outsourcing is also happening in a number of cases thus it is not affecting HR roles significantly (CIPD, 2006). Yet outsourcing may reduce the HR task of an organization but it is shifting those tasks to some other companies. The cost of running a HR department may go up and down but at the end it repay with the improved productivity it brings to the human resource of the company. The human resource still remains the competitive advantage factor and it will remain so in the future. Different market boundaries are falling apart and forming one single global market. In this marketplace different companies of an industry are experimenting all possible and available resources to achieve the competitive advantage. But it is human resource that can offer additional featur es to a business through a continuous development process. Thus, the task of people management is not limiting rather its expanding. A dynamic human resource management body can attract the best bunches of talent by designing and offering exceptional reward and career opportunity package and at the same time it can improve the productivity of its existing resource to the highest level by planning, developing and implementing an effective training and development programme. For instance, Microsoft and Google both have search engines. The number of users using a search engine determines its business success. Now, people will use the search engine that consists of highest number of resources and that offer additional features that carry the better value then the others. The human resources are bringing all the features and widening business opportunities in these both cases. And it is the HRM department that recruits those professionals through an effective selection and recruitment pr ocess, offering them their dream package of reward and compensation, and later on it brings those professionals to this level through a proper training and development. Thus, the Human Resource Management is crucial for organizational survival in todays marketplace.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Role of the Department of Homeland Security - 573 Words

The Role of the Department of Homeland Security Objective The objective of this study is to clearly and specifically address the principles, goals, and missions of DHS and FBI. Introduction One of the primary roles of the Department of Homeland Security is intelligence and threat analysis and the protection of the countrys critical infrastructure. The Department is reported to fuse and analyze intelligence and other information relating to homeland security threats and multiple resources are used in this endeavor including the CIA, NSA, FBI, INS, DEA, DOE, Customs and DOT and data gleaned from other organizations. (Office of Homeland Security, 2002) I. Critical Mission Areas The Critical Mission Areas for the Department of Homeland Security is inclusive of the following stated areas: (1) Intelligence and Warning; (2) Border and Transportation Security; (3) Domestic Counterterrorism; (4) Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets; (5) Defending Against Catastrophic Threats; and (6) Emergency Preparedness and Response. (Office of Homeland Security, 2002) II. Strategic Objectives The Strategic Objectives stated by the Department of Homeland Security include the following strategic objectives: (1) Preventing terrorist attacks within the United States; (2) Reducing Americas vulnerability to terrorism; and (3) Minimizing the damage and recover from attacks that do occur. (Office of Homeland Security, 2002) In the areas of Intelligence andShow MoreRelatedRole Of The Department Of Homeland Security1659 Words   |  7 PagesRole of the DHS in Counterterrorism On September 11, 2011, the United States observed the tenth anniversary of the worst terrorist attacks in the history of the United States . The creation of many anti-terrorism organizations was a clear message that this threat is beyond a single military or intelligence capacity. Our citizens demanded a strong response that would prevent any future terrorist threat. President Bush created the Department of Homeland Security as the key agency responsible forRead MoreOverview of the US Department of Homeland Security925 Words   |  4 PagesDepartment of Homeland Security: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security was formed more than a decade ago with a very significant mission of safeguarding Americas homeland from hazards, threats, and national disasters. This department conducts its mission through securing the countrys borders, preventing terror attacks, and responding to incidents or threats to its citizens (Miller, n.d.). Generally, the most important roles of the Department of Homeland Security are to lead a concerted nationalRead MoreRoles Of Law Enforcement And Intelligence1503 Words   |  7 PagesRoles of Law Enforcement and Intelligence in Counter-Terrorism After 9/11 September 11, 2001 marks one of the darkest, if not the darkest, days in United States history. It is a day in the history of our country in which everyone remembers where they were and what they were doing when they heard the news that two planes had flown into the World Trade Center in New York City, taking out both of the Twin Towers. All in all there were close to 3,000 people who lost their lives on that fateful day betweenRead MoreThe Department Of Homeland Security Act1165 Words   |  5 Pages When one thinks of security, they tend to think of being protected, free from harm or danger. There are various security threats that the world faces today. Threats could range from a series of cyber threats to terrorist attacks. We are incessantly encountered with catastrophic man-made and natural diseases. The Department of Homeland Security measures the nation s vulnerabilities, meaning it takes initiative in leading and evaluating vulnerabilities and coordinating with other federal, state,Read MoreThe Role Of Homeland Security From The United States Constitution1398 Words   |  6 PagesThe role of Homeland Security originated from the Founding Fathers, under the United States Constitution, that created a system and gave the primary role of homeland security to state and local governments (Oliver, 2007). When state and local governments became overwhelmed and could no longer effectively deal with a crisis then homeland security government would assist those governments (Oliver, 2007). The relationship was created through the United States Constitution in Article 4, Section 4, whichRead MoreU.s. National Security Strategies And Policies1231 Words   |  5 PagesFor this progress assignment I would like to describe homeland security as it is defined in the various U.S. national security strategies and policies. In addition I would like to speak to the difference between Homeland Security and Homeland Defense to include mission areas, task, operational responsibilities, and coordinating efforts. Homeland Security The establishment of the Department of Homeland security is, undoubtedly, a result of the lessons learned and identification of the need to protectRead MoreThe Department Of Homeland Security And Homeland Defense969 Words   |  4 Pages The defense, security, and safety American citizens enjoy each and every day is a result of dedicated professionals committed to Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. These broad initiatives require well-defined missions, organized and focused tasking, and finally, clearly understood duties, responsibilities, and operations. Organizations charged with these responsibilities must be better resourced than those of the enemy. Success in each of these objectives requires a well-organized infrastructureRead MoreU.s. Federal Department Of Homeland Security1245 Words   |  5 PagesThe idea of the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security evolved into the biggest U.S. government reorganization in American history. Prior to the establish ment of the Department, Americans increasingly became concerned about terrorism on our soil. This concern was triggered by the World Trade Center bombing in 1993, the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 as well as the discovery of a bomb at the Atlanta Olympics in 1994. Additionally, it became more apparent to the Americans that terrorismRead MoreU.s. Department Of Homeland Security1668 Words   |  7 Pages1. Purpose Among one of the missions of The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is to protect and preserve the security of the Cyberspace in the country. The principal objective of this Security Plan is to give instructions and direction for the Department’s workers and help the Homeland Security to create best practices and strategies in the IT security system. 2. Scope This policy needs to be applied to all users, employees, contractors, suppliers and to all IT resources such as e-mails, filesRead MoreHomeland Security And Homeland Defense1321 Words   |  6 Pagesin its security. The result of the tragic events was the establishment of homeland security. The White House, the federal government and the Congress joined together to establish it. On September 20, 2001, President George W. Bush issued an executive order 13228 to establish an Office of Homeland Security within the White House and assigning the Governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Ridge as its Director (Bullock, Haddow, Coppola, 2013, p. 4). Ever since, the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Advocacy Role paper Free Essays

Advanced practice nurse’s are reimbursed at a lower rate for the same services than physicians by Medicare, Medicaid and other private insurance companies. American medical association sets our scope of practice and regulations and legislation is often influenced by these recommendations. Advanced practice nurses should be consider as equal members of the healthcare provider community and receive equal reimbursement. We will write a custom essay sample on Advocacy Role paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now To make these changes one must develop a plan and advocate for the profession. Advanced practice nurses are reimbursed at a lower rate, for the same services, than physicians. Medicare reimburses nurse practitioners at 85%, certified nurse midwives at 65 %, and physician assistants at 85% or less of the physician fee. The exception to the reimbursement rate is called the â€Å"incident to†. Medicare will reimburse at 100% if billed under a physician provider number. Medicaid pays 75-100% of the physician fee with the exception of some rural areas. Private insurance companies reimbursement to advanced practice nurses policies vary state to state. In an attempt to find ways to decrease cost, private insurance companies are beginning to follow Medicare’s reimbursement policies. For advanced practice nurses the reimbursement policies vary according to state, company, and licensure, and are not equitable to physician reimbursement. This issue is being buried by the American Medical Association. The Affordable care Act addressed the reimbursement of physicians but APN were not mentioned. 1997 budget act is the last legislation passed that addressed reimbursement for advanced practice nurses. This act decided that advanced practice nurses are entitled to reimbursement. The legislators in Tennessee at that time voted for or against the act. This issue has not been addressed since then which could say that this is not a priority for the state. It could be the increae cost related to increased reombursement that keeps them from pushing the issue. The affordable Care Act addressed Medicare reimbursement but did not adress APN’s specifically. The govener of Tennessee opted out of taking the money for the state. The federal govt. as to except the cost and reimburse at 100% this could have impacted advanced practice nurses in a positive way. As it stands This issue needs to be addressed with more impact especially after the affordable care and patient protection act. Nurse practitioners will be a solution of the problem and will want to be reimbursed according to care not license. Reimbursement of care provided by advanced practice nurses should equal physicians because t hey are providing the same service with equal or better outcomes. In a study done by Laurent, Herman, Reeves, Braspenning, ; Spinbald, â€Å"The findings suggest that appropriately trained nurses can produce as high quality care as primary care doctors and achieve as good health outcomes for patients. † Naylor and Kurtzman found that Nurse Practitioners â€Å"out performed physicians in easures of consultation time, patient follow-up and patient satisfaction. â€Å"(Naylor ; Kurtzman, 2010). A 2002 report to Congress by the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, however, was unable to tind reliable data to discern clear ditterences in the two groups’ outcomes and expenses. How to cite Advocacy Role paper, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Love And Devotion Essay Research Paper Love free essay sample

Love And Devotion Essay, Research Paper Love and Devotion Dan and Ann had been waiting for this clip of all time since they fell in love two old ages ago. They were traveling to hold a babe. The gestation had been a perfect one. Dan took really good attention of Ann and the babe for he was a devoted hubby, and had made Ann eat healthy and exercise really good. Everything had been great. One twenty-four hours Dan was half was through a meeting when he received a phone call from Ann. She told him that her H2O had merely broken and her contractions were already truly strong. He knew that he would non be able to acquire place on clip to take her to the infirmary, so he called 911 and have an ambulance sent to his house. Since he couldn? t be at that place for her, he stayed on the phone with her until she told him that the ambulance had arrived and so he raced to his auto. We will write a custom essay sample on Love And Devotion Essay Research Paper Love or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When he arrived, he saw Ann being wheeled on a stretcher. He rushed to her side. Then nurses rapidly moved her up to the pregnancy ward and into her room so they could acquire her hooked up to the proctors to see how she and their babe was making. Once the nurses got her hooked up to the proctor, they noticed that the babe? s pulse was really weak. Dan kept inquiring them what was incorrect and they kept stating him that he would hold to wait for the physician to come. Ann kept shouting from the hurting and kept inquiring for something. The physician eventually came over and explained to them that their babe? s pulse was excessively weak to be delivered of course. He was traveling to hold to make an exigency C subdivision on her. Ann asked him if her babe was traveling to do it and he reassured her that they could hold their babe out every bit shortly as possible. As Ann was being rushed up to the operating room, she couldn? T aid but get down weeping. Her gestation had been so fantastic and she was ready to get down a new life with her kid and now this was go oning and she didn? Ts know why. Once they got her prepped, they allowed Dan to be by her side. The babe was holding a harder clip with each go throughing 2nd. Once the physician opened up Ann, he hurried and got the babe out. The nurses instantly took the babe over to another tabular array and started working on it. Dan was worried because he hadn? t heard the babe call yet, but the physician reassured him that the babe was traveling to be all right. Then he went off to look into the babe and came back in a few proceedingss with a really heavy expression. With a suspiration, he told Dan that their babe had merely died because he wasn? t a healthy one to get down with. Dan was about to conk and wanted to decease, but he couldn? T because of Ann. He knew how devastated Ann was traveling to be. So he decided to be strong and take good attention of Ann. He thanked God that at least Ann was safe. With heavy stairss, he went out of the exigency room. It was later that twenty-four hours when Ann had woken up from the surgery. She was peacefully lying on the bed non cognizing anything. He walked over to her and took her manus in his. She looked at him and smiled. He smiled back at her faintly and looked into her eyes really earnestly. She sensed that something was really incorrect so she asked him what the affair was. Keeping back the cryings hotfooting through his eyes, Dan told her what had happened. He told her that God had chosen to do their babe a guardian angel, merely as God had chosen them to happen one another and autumn in love. Ann let out a loud call and didn? t halt for T along clip. Dan merely held her close and allow her call in his weaponries. At last Samantha stopped and said, ? You did everything you could, Dan. You were a devoted male parent, loyal to the babe and me. Our babe is likely really thankful for what you have done for us. You have done all your responsibilities as hubby and male parent and I thank you for that. I love you, Dan? ?

Saturday, March 28, 2020

In a Highly Dynamic and Turbulent Environment free essay sample

In a highly dynamic and turbulent environment, some mangers of organizations seek to plan their change strategy in the light of circumstances, whilst others have change thrust upon them. Therefore, it benefits all mangers to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between the organization and its environment and react accordingly. Introduction The purpose of this article is to evaluate the statement above and discuss the skills a manager might need to be successful in a increasingly fast changing and growing complexity business environment. No matter what form of the organization that you work for, for example, a profit making company, a public sector bodies or voluntary charitable group. We all have been experiencing the impact of the environment that surrounding organization. Accordingly, studying the environment and managing the impact are essential to survive or gain competitive advantage. Changing School of Management Thought Before we talk about the environment, I would like to briefly exploring some of the major schools of management thought. We will write a custom essay sample on In a Highly Dynamic and Turbulent Environment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This is important to know that not only the environment is changing rapidly, but also the way we see the world is shifting. Each of the schools of thought, in their day, represents the major paradigms and reflects the business environment surrounding them in their eras. These schools of thought are the ‘paradigms’ of management referred to by Clarke and Clegg in their book â€Å"Changing Paradigms – The Transformation of Management Knowledge for the 21st Century. †(Clarke Clegg, 2000) . Since â€Å"Clarke and Clegg define paradigms as models or frameworks that we use to help us perceive, perceive, understand and interpret the world around us. † (R A Cowe BmiC Lec1, 2008). We can understand the change happens in business world by studying different schools of thoughts and paradigms in different time. Thus we can compare the complexity of nowadays environment with early year environment. The major schools of management that we need to recognize are Scientific Classical (administrative) Behavioral Systems and contingency approaches Scientific School views management as a science and belief that there is only ‘one best way’ to run a business, whilst mangers are able to identify and prescribe the one best way. Classical School seeks universal truth about management through specialization of work, unity of command, scalar chain of command and co-ordination of activities. Behavioral School emphasizes the ‘people factor’ and it does not view people as machines. These three major foretime schools of management have certain command feature. They just emphasize one aspect of management only, like Scientific management focus on work, Classical management focus on organization structure and Behavioral management focus on people. They believe that there is only one best way to manage a business and only one single factor drive the change. This emphasis tends to ignore the ‘environment factor’. These theories treat management as an internality rather than externality. According to their assumptions, environment seems to be a constant rather than a variable. We suggest that these foretime paradigms, in their time, have much more stable, predictable and parochial environment, therefore they do not see the problem of ignoring the ‘environment factors’. Nowaday environment, however, is no longer stable and predictable. The most recent school of management, System approach, implies that present day organization exist in highly dynamic and turbulent environment. Systems approach represents an organization as an Open System. They believe organization do not exit in isolation, on the contrary, organization exist within environment. We will detailedly discuss system approach and apply it for analysis of the environment in latter part of this article. Cause of Dynamic and Turbulent Nowadays, highly dynamic and turbulent environment was caused by such as globalization and appearance of internet. According to the Boston Consulting Group (Clarke Clegg, 2000) the following are the key â€Å"drives of change†: Change in economic structure The basis of competition The changing shape of business organization â€Å"Globalization is often used to refer to economic globalization, that is, integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology. †( Bhagwati Jagdish, 2004). This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces referred to by Rowman Littlefield in their book â€Å"Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity a Changing World. †(2004) Globalization brings change in economic structure Impact on business: Deregulation and opening up of national economies. For example, accession of China to WTO. Challenges: Complex, fast-changing and unfamiliar competitive environment Globalization also brings change in the basis of competition Impact on business: Emergency of capabilities-based competition. For example, value/supply chain management. Challenges: Managing the relationship with global customers, supplier, and workforces, etc. Globalization change the shape of business organization Impact on business: Growth in flexible working arrangements. Challenges: Leading an organization of quite different design Globalization bring a new manner of doing business, since globality offer much opportunity and competitive to our business environment. You can join economic and technological forces with anybody in anywhere. This gives us a continued growth impact, whilst an uncertain and competitive impact. Take my ompany as an example. I work for a fabric manufacture company, Calen, which is based in Hong Kong having mills in mainland China and ship our product, fabric, to Jordan and Cambodia to produce garment selling to USA. We not only compete with Hong Kong rival, but also Vietnam, Turkey and any knitting company in the world. We also have to manage the relationships with suppliers wh o come from India and Pakistan. Under this highly dynamic and turbulent environment, in order to sustain growth and remain competitive we need our managers or organization to be proactive and actively seek opportunity and avoid risk. Nature and Characteristics of Environment Some mangers of organizations try to manage their organization/environment relationship. However, â€Å"The major issue for management in this respect is whether or not the environment is an unmanageable phenomenon†¦.. because of the nature, complexity and uncertainty which exists out there it is impossible to comprehend the organization/environmental relationship. If it is impossible to understand it is impossible to manage. †(David Hawley, 2008). If we want to manage the environment it is worth to have a better understanding of the nature and characteristics of environment. There are many definitions of the organizational external environment, .. all factors, EXTERNAL to the organization, a change in which may produce a change in the state of the Organization. † (Ackoff Emery, 1972, Thompson, 1968) Or as Von Bertalanffy (1968) suggests when considering the organization/environmental relationship, it might be viewed as: .. a living organism (The Organization), which interacts with its environment. † These definitions show there is interaction between organization and environment. We cannot isolate organization from its environment. Emery Trist (1969) suggested that certain types of environment contain certain characteristics: Placid Random (static) Placid Clustered (static) Disturbed Reactive (dynamic) Turbulent (dynamic) Placid Random – low degree of movement (change) and little connectedness (linkage); impose least threat to the organization; simple decision making and problem solving techniques required. Placid Clustered – similar to placid random, but environmental factors comes in cluster, e. g. suppliers or distributors; more multi-lateral dealing required by the organization to cope with them all; cannot take the environment as a given. Disturbed Reactive – relationship much more comple; fate of organization inextricably linked with factors in the environment; more uncertainty in the organization environment relationship; requires a response from the organization. Turbulent – high degree and rate of change in environment may be beyond the organization’s capacity to predict, major changes which appear remote, but are significant. Some managers of organizations seek to plan their change strategy in the light of circumstances. According to the complexity and uncertainty of the environment, it is impossible to completely perceive every circumstance surrounding origination. Therefore there must be some circumstances remains unknown to managers. We here distinguish circumstances as ‘known’ and ‘unknown’, the unknown circumstances such as the First Order Environment and the known circumstances such as Second Order Environment. We are going to introduce First/Second Order Environment in the following. Organizations are affected by elements of the external business environment: First Order Environment Second Order Environment Social; Owners Political Employees Economic Competitiors Legal Banks Technical Customers Suppliers Other Stakeholders First order environment is the outer layer that widely dispersed and affects organizations indirectly. It is very hard to predict indirect impact of first order environment on organizations. These elements do not directly change day-to-day operations, but they will affect all organizations eventually. Second order environment is closer to the organization and includes sector that conduct day-to-day transactions with organization and directly influence. It is easy to predict direct impact of these elements on organizations. It is basic operations and performance. In the figure showed below, organizations exist within second order environment, whilst second order environment exist within first order environment. Fig 1. adapted from David Hawley, Napier University, Business and Management in Context, lec 2 p. 8 Analyze Environment Having a better understanding of the nature and characteristics of environment is not enough for managers to plan their change strategy.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Cost Accounting

Cost Accounting Today, as the business world becomes more complicated than the past, many internal accounting managers face with challenging situations. And situation like Kranbraek Corporation makes an internal accounting manager a hard decision between his professional ethics and accepting orders from his or her boss. What really matters is that this is violation of the professional codes of ethics, and it is going to end up with the collapse of the company.Cellant, who is the president of Kranbraik Corporation, has ordered the company ¡Ã‚ ¯s controller to scrutinize all costs that are currently classified as period cost and reclassify as many as possible as product costs. It is meant to convert fixed costs to variable one so that fixed cost that should be incurred this year can be portioned to next year. It sounds clever to debit selling expenses as cost of goods sold which is going to be charged over the next year when the sales amounts are quite high.Professional Ethics (journal)However, the cost of goods sold next year are going to be higher than actual cost of goods sold, then the other aspects of the situation are going to cause the controller to cook the accounting books in other places. Reclassifying period costs to product costs will eventually and consecutively cause more problems later on. Moreover, professional auditors will doubt why Kranbrack Corporation cutbacks period costs, and they will eventually find out that the company deceived stakeholders to look fabulous to potential investors by showing impressive earning per share. Finally, the later story implies an fatal disaster.Whether actual sales accounts don ¡Ã‚ ¯t exceed the planned amounts, it is proper to cut back discretionary fixed costs like advertising and travel. However, nobody knows how adversely cutting back advertising expense affect is invisible and tremendous. Thus, the controller should not disregard the...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Challenges That New Media Poses To the Cinema Industry Essay

Challenges That New Media Poses To the Cinema Industry - Essay Example Modern movie theatres today are perceived as big enclosed buildings with excellent sound effects, comfortable seats, dimmed lights and a big wide screen where the latest international and local movies or films are shown. Movie theatres compared to the televisions are owned by corporations and visited by the general public while televisions are owned by individuals. The film is actually projected with a movie projector onto a large white screen infront of the auditorium. It is connoted as a "big screen" which contrasts the small screens of television to put a thrill and play with a person's imagination when it comes to movie watching. According to a 24 year old movie watcher, movie theatres add more thrill with the use of a larger than life images and loud sound effects. Movie theatres are very popular. Long before television was made known in the 1950's, the first movie theatre which is exclusively showing motion pictures was launch in 1896. Non-commercial television is a system of broadcasting that is financed by means other than advertising revenues. (Paul Mareth) Today however, through the evolution of technology, hi-tech gadgets were being invented. Television is not only used to watch TV shows aired by television programmers and cable/satellites. With the existence of video tapes or video home system (VHS), CD's (compact disk), VCD's (Video Compact disk) and DVD's (Digital Video disk), and the innovation of wide flat screened television sets, it now provides a homely theatre for home entertainment. AIMS To discuss the contribution of the distribution of DVD in peoples lifestyle as a result of home entertainment To know the positive and negative effects of DVD distribution to the cinema industry Film Distribution Since the late 1970's, there has been a radical change in both film content and the distribution of the film product. (Gerald Mast) While more and more people subscribe cable or satellite connections, film industries has come to depend more and more on television rather than theatres. The President of Paradigm, Peter Broderick says "I don't recommend that filmmakers go it alone and try and reinvent the wheel. But I also don't recommend that they just blindly go into making overall deals assuming that all their problems will be solved by this one company, whatever it may be". (Rebort) A film doesn't have to be seen only in theatres with the existence of televisions and the evolution of film distribution. Acknowledging the threat of the growing number of couch potatoes, film doesn't need to be distributed through cinemas alone but also go with the fast flow of digital innovation. Eventually films had been distributed, designed or converted to cater TV viewing, since the early 80's. VC R equipments and video tapes had been popular and widely distributed and so do CD's and DVD's in today's era. However, DVD's won't be around forever. There is this so called "format war" that keeps on